Review of low-cost point-of-use water treatment systems

For communities in developing countries, most drinking water problems are caused by pathogens resulting from poor sanitation, leading to infections and diarrhea. One of the causes is that these communities often lack access to centralized water treatment facilities. Point of Use (POU) systems are key solutions for water treatment in developing communities; They are generally easy to use, inexpensive, low maintenance, and network independent.

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Importantly, these communities treat and reduce the amount of pathogens in their water supplies, and these communities have implemented and used many POU systems, improving their lives. This review focuses on POU systems serving families or communities, with the objective of examining and evaluating the technologies that have been implemented in POU systems over the last decade.

Introduction
Water is needed to sustain life. It is also used in many anthropogenic activities such as agriculture, laundry and industries. While almost all people living in the developed region have access to better drinking water, more than 30% of people living in less developed countries lack access to better drinking water.1 Better water source, according to WHO / UNICEF The Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) method refers to water from pipe networks, tube wells, protected dug wells, springs and rainwater harvesting. Over the past decades, awareness and progress in water treatment and distribution has enabled many to access better sources of drinking water. From 1990 to 2005, more than 1.1 billion people worldwide had access to a better source of drinking water, and 83% of people worldwide had access to a better source of drinking water.2 However, It is estimated that 663 million people still do not have access to better drinking water, they consume untreated water from wells, springs and surface waters.1 The use of unimproved water sources will make users susceptible to waterborne diseases .

Poor sanitation and hygiene cause pathogens to contaminate surface and groundwater. Ingestion of contaminated water often causes water-borne illnesses, causing health symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and gastroenteritis.3,4 Diarrhea is the most common symptom of water-borne illnesses, and it damages social and social societies. economically. In 1996, diarrhea was estimated to cost at least R3.0 billion in South Africa, with a total social cost of at least 1% of South Africa’s GDP.5 There have been 1.7 billion cases of diarrhea per year. 6 525,000 children under the age of 5 are also killed each year. Diarrhea is the result of an infection in the intestinal tract. One will experience three or more liquid / loose stools in a day, causing dehydration. Life will also be at risk if electrolytes and water are not replaced. Prolonged diarrhea will also lead to malnutrition, making you more susceptible to further bouts of diarrhea. Most cases of diarrhea in developing countries are caused mainly by Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Cryptosporidium and rotavirus. 4,6,7,8,9 Therefore, the guidelines on drinking water established by the World Organization of Health (WHO) have indicated that it should not be detected in drinking water and in the corresponding distribution system

Waterborne diseases can be prevented with proper water treatment. In developed countries and major urban areas, the water supply is managed mainly through centralized water treatment systems. Traditional centralized water treatment systems consist of essential processes to kill harmful microorganisms.11 The treated water is then distributed to households through extensive plumbing systems. However, in developing countries and rural areas, the initial cost of a centralized water treatment and distribution system, due to the low density of housing, has made it difficult to install12. Adoption of a water storage and treatment system in place is feasible on average. Point of Use (POU) technologies are on-site water treatment systems that reduce pathogens in water sources prior to consumption. During the last decade, numerous technologies have emerged and implemented in POU treatment systems. This article aims to examine and evaluate technologies developed over the past decade that are used in community-developed PDU treatment systems to eliminate pathogens and reduce diarrhea episodes.

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